Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Salt Tolerant Plants for the Midwest

Even though we haven’t had much snow in our area this year and we don’t live by the ocean, we still think about Salt Spray Damage and how to prevent it.  Salt spray off of busy highways can travel up to 60 feet away from the road.
Here are some things you can do to prevent salt spray damage to your plants this winter:
Improve drainage.
Plant salt tolerant plants (see listing below).
Put up barriers, either natural (i.e. berm) fencing or burlap.
Gypsum can help bind the salt particles and slow its uptake through the plant.
Calcium and dolomitic lime are also believed to help.
Flush plant area with water after area has been in contact with salt.
If possible, don’t use salt at all. Use as little salt as possible, or use a salt substitute like calcium chloride.
Use a sand deicer mix to increase traction.

Here are some signs to look for when trying to determine if your plants have salt spray damage:
Either outer burning or scorch.
Moisture sucked out of leaves or needles.
When the plant takes the salt up into the vascular system it can cause toxic effects or tissue death.
Browning or yellowing plants.
Witches broom or deformed growth on the tips, lack of vigor.
Stunted growth.
Plants are more susceptible to disease and/or insects.
Death of plant.

List of Salt-Tolerant Plants

Vines
English Ivy –Hedera helix
Honeysuckle - Lonicera
Virginia Creeper - Parthenocissus quinquefolia


Bulbs
Daffodil – Narcissus

Grasses
Blue Lyme Grass - Leymus arenarius
Little Blue Stem - Schizachyrium scoparium
Miscanthus – Miscanthus sinensis
Switch Grass - Panicum virgatum
Fountain Grass - Pennisetum setaceum

Perennials

Blue Giant Hyssop – Agastache foeniculum
Artemesia – Asteracea
Blanket Flower – Gaillardia
Blue Star – Amsonia

Butterfly Weed – Asclepias tuberosa
Candytuft – Iberis sempervirens
Creeping Phlox – Phlox subulata
Daylily – Hemerocallis
Dianthus -
Spindle Tree - Euonymus
Hens & Chicks – Sempervivum tectorum
Hibiscus hardy –
Hosta -
Ice Plant - Delosperma cooperi
Indigo Plant - Baptisia australis
Lamb’s ear – Stachys
Lavender Cotton – Santolina chamaecyparissus
Leadwort – Plumbago
Border Grass - Liriope spicata
Purple Cone Flower – Echinacea purpurea
Red Hot Poker – Kniphofia
Russian Sage – Perovskia atriplicifolia
Salvia -
Elderberry - Sambucus
Sea Thrift – Armeria
Sedum
Goldenrods - Solidago
Yarrow – Achillea millefolium

Trees
Black Gum – Nyssa sylvatica
Black Locust – Robinia pseudoacacia
Catalpa - Bignoniaceae
Eastern Red Cedar – Juniper virginiana
Ginkgo -
Hawthorn - Crataegus species
Hedge Maple – Acer Campestre

Honeylocust – Gleditsia triacanthos
Hophornbeam - Ostrya
Hornbeam - Carpinus caroliniana
Kentucky Coffee Tree – Gymnocladus dioicus
Magnolia -
Mock Orange - Philadelphus x virginalis 'Natchez'
Pawpaw – Asimina triloba
Quaking Aspen - Populus termuloides
Purple Leaf Sand Cherry – Prunus X Cistena
Serviceberry - Amelanchier
Shagbark Hickory – Carya ovata
Sweetgum - Liquidambar styraciflua
Witchhazel – Hamamelis

Evergreens
Austrian Pine – Pinus nigra
Blue Spruce – Picea pungens
European Larch – Larix decidua
Jack Pine - Pinus banksiana
Mugo Pine – Pinus mugo
White Fir - Abies concolor
White Spruce - Picea glauca

Annuals/Tropicals
African Lily - Agapanthus
Aspargus Fern - Asparagus densiflorus (Sprengeri group)
Canna Lily - Canna x generalis
Coleus - Coleus blumei
Blue Daze - Evolvulus
Gaura - Gaura lindheimeri 'Whirling Butterflies'
Heavenly Bamboo – Nandina domestica
Joseph’s Coat – Alternanthera
Mexican Heather – Cuphea hyssopifolia
Moss Rose - Portulaca grandiflora
New Zealand Flax - Phormium
Oleander - Nerium
Pentas – Pentas lanceolata
Purple Heart – Setcreasea pallida
Autumn Sage - Salvia gregii
Verbena - Verbena bonariensis (tall), Verbena x hybrid (short)

Shrubs – hardy Zone 5
Alpine Currant - Ribes alpinum
Beautyberry – Callicarpa
Chokeberry Brilliant - Aronia arbutifolia
Clethra – Clethra alnifolia
Cotoneaster -
Japanese Spindle/Green Spire - Euonymus japonica
Forsythia
Mopheads - Hydrangea macrophylla
Japanese Barberry - Berberis thunbergii
Chinese Juniper  - Juniperus chinensis
Lilac - Syringa
Cinquefoil - Potentilla
Firethorn - Pyracantha
Rugosa Rose - Rosa rugosa
Rose of Sharon - Hibiscus syriacus
Mountain Ash - Sorbus domestica
Spirea
St. John’s Wort - Hypericum perforatum
Sumac - Rhus
Viburnum
Weigela florida
Willow – Salix

Sources:

http://www.bartlett.com/resources/Salt-Injury-to-Landscape-Plants.pdf    Bartlett Tree
http://urbanext.illinois.edu/stateline/011213.html University of Illinois Extension 

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